Collection II (06.2023 - )

We are now commencing COLLECTION II and welcome submissions and recommendations of books, especially those that tackle issues, or that come from geographic areas or groups that were under-represented in the first collection (which primarily featured UK bookmakers).

Visit Collection I (02.2022 - 02.2023)

Extraction: In Conversation with Anna Atkins
Marie Smith
(Self-Published: 2023)

The Horniman Museum and Gardens owns 4 volumes of Anna Atkins study of British Algae that were made as cyanotype plates in 1848 and bound as books in the 1880’s. Atkins is widely known as being the first female photographer to make a book of photographic illustrations. Anna Atkins was married to John Pelly Atkins, the son of Alderman John Atkins - a West India merchant and slave owner of several plantations in Jamaica. The Atkin’s family received compensation when slavery was abolished. The compensation paid to the Atkins family alongside other former slave traders was paid at the expense of the UK taxpayer, a national debt that was only paid off in 2015. As someone who is of Jamaican heritage; this aspect of Atkin’s history provided me with an understanding of how she was able to finance her artistic practice and provided a point for me to respond to. In response to my residency at Horniman Museum & Gardens, the series Extraction: In Conversation with Anna Atkins, was made. The book features 30 cyanotype plates, bound into a book. The cyanotypes (some bleached with sodium carbonate) feature photos of the Horniman’s Gardens alongside a transcript from my responses to the archive.

Images © Marie Smith

Materials and Processes

  • Paper: Parallax pre-coated cyanotype paper - 90gsm
  • Cover: Handmade cyanotype on watercolour paper - 120gsm
  • Binding: Japanese stab binding with waxed thread by Folium
  • Printing: Unique Cyanotype prints 8x10” 
  • Book Size: 8x10” / 10x12” box / 33 cyanotypes
  • Edition Size: 1 unique book 

The book is housed in a Box, cloth covered with a tipped in cyanotype image.

What does sustainability mean to you? 

Photography is a polluting and extractive form of making work and there's no way of getting around that. It was originally conceived as a scientific medium, before it became an art form. It is grounded in extraction; silver for the film, and many toxic materials to process and develop the film and the paper. 

For me sustainability is about being conscientious of my use of materials. I definitely think about my use of film because I work only with analog photography. I only make work when I need to, I don't tend to go out and just make work for the sake of it, like I used to do. So it's about being conscious of what I'm taking in terms of the materials and resources and what I'm putting back in. As well as making sure that there's links with the subject of the work, informed by the process of trying to be sustainable. I work mostly in black and white and make my own developers, and that was a great skill to learn in developing a conscientious way of working sustainably with photography. Well as sustainable as it's possible to be.

I try to use what I have rather than going out and buying new materials, and this has made me more resourceful. I went through a stage of going to dark rooms and asking them for spare bits of paper. When making my own developers I’ll ask friends with gardens or balconies for cuttings. There's also a couple of places around where I live, where herbs like rosemary and lavender are growing, and I might take a cutting. But I won't take more than I need.

How did you think through your choices of paper, printing method, binding, packaging, number of books etc?

The book that I made was in response, but also with reference to, the Anna Atkins book that I saw in the Horniman archive. The collection includes four volumes of her original cyanotypes that were made in 1848 and bound into books in the 1890s. When looking at her books, there was a whole performance behind it, they were in sealed boxes and I wasn't actually allowed to touch the books. They were bound very beautifully with blue cloth and the edges of the cyanotype books had gold edges. I wanted to do a modern interpretation of them, but still to retain some of the formality.

I made perhaps 50 cyanotypes over the course of the six month residency and wanted to find a way to put them all together as a collection. The book felt like the perfect format, as something that would make them last. I spent a lot of time talking to Stewart and Harry at Folium throughout the making process. We decided to use a Japanese binding because that caused less harm to the original cyanotypes. It means that the spine of the book itself is quite thin, so it doesn't impede on you looking through the prints. They gave me suggestions and together we came up with the box idea. I wanted everything to sit together as one entity, even the inside of the box is lined with an original cyanotype. It is an artwork as well as a book, which is why I only made one copy. I scanned all of the original cyanotypes before they were bound, so I have digital copies of them. In the future if I had a grant I would like to make other versions of the extraction book. Perhaps to be a bit more experimental with the format and the paper, because for this book the size was dictated by the size of the cyanotypes themselves.

When I was looking at the books in the archive the word extraction kept coming up because I was thinking about the extractive nature of Anna Atkins using British algae. I was wondering, what happened to the algae, how did she get it, what happened to it afterwards. Her links to colonialism and slavery as well, created a duality to her identity, and with the cyanotypes in particular. I used bleach on some of my own cyanotypes to reflect my feelings about her work and her history. Her work made using this process was funded by her family’s Plantations in Jamaica, and so I wanted to remove the beautiful deep blue colour through my use of bleach. The text in the centre of the book records my emotions and reflections on these tensions as a direct response to the archive.

The Horniman museum was receptive to the work, and bought the book to initiate a re-contextualisation of the work of Anna Atkins. Staff members at the museum had also been a part of the process through discussing the original books and the plants in the museum gardens. At the end of the residency they exhibited the work alongside contextual information, and the book is now available to view on request.

What challenges did you face, what questions were you asking, would you do anything differently next time?

The challenge was figuring out what I wanted to do, and trying to manage my time because I was also working at the same time as doing the residency. I didn't set out to make a book or to even work in cyanotypes, it arose when I found out about the Anna Atkins book in the collection. A few years previous I had found out about her links to slavery and colonisation. When I found out about it I was livid that I didn't know this already. The residency became a good outlet for me to work through my ideas, my thoughts and my feelings about her and the cyanotype process.

The residency was a privilege to have access and time to talk to people and to ask questions. I spent time in the gardens of the museum, but I was so overwhelmed by the contents of the garden that it wasn't until I met some of the gardeners that I was able to get my head around what was in there. We talked a lot about the language we use to describe plants and to determine which ones are weeds, and I learned a lot from their approach to managing the gardens sustainably. For example they have callaloo growing in the gardens, which is used in a national Jamaican dish. It's kind of woody and earthy and has a texture in between kale and spinach. I didn’t think that this plant would be able to grow in the UK, but they have it in abundance in the garden, and it needs to be picked. So I used this plant, and other leaves found on the nature trail, in some of the cyanotypes. During the residency in March and April there were also elderflowers in abundance in the gardens, so I used these to develop the photographs.

Do you have any sustainability tips or inspirations (i.e. books, films, websites, podcasts) to share with others?

The Sustainable Darkroom publications. With each book that they've published, they're shifting the narrative of what sustainability is, and adding not just to the methodology in terms of how you make photography in a sustainable way, but also looking at the history and colonial aspects of photography. So I think that duality is really important in terms of developing your practice in a sustainable way.

Be mindful of your utilisation of materials, and not be wasteful.Think about how you can use leftover materials for something else. Look after things and label them correctly. Don’t see unused images as waste, but as something that might be useful in the future.

Marie Smith (UK) - 04/2024
Mark Phillips
(Self-published: 2023)

"" is a long-term project on sustainability and the important role of repair and reuse. There is a particular focus on electronic waste, as our fastest growing waste, which has significant upstream impacts. Acting as both a manifesto and solutions manual, it explores the impact and the many solutions we already have, drawing on evidence from Cuba, Ghana, Sweden, Belgium, Finland and across the UK. 

Our councils and waste authorities offer our best chance to make a real difference in the near-term. We already have potential solutions. ‘’ was sent to over 260 councils and local authorities in the United Kingdom; it campaigns for solutions to adopt or adapt, now.  A complementary ‘act now’ zine has been distributed through community repair groups and sustainability events.  A limited number of copies are available for sale. 

Images © Mark Phillips

Materials and Processes:

  • Cover: Buckram Grey 115gsm. Greyboard: 1500mic, Liner for greyboard: 150gsm White Offset (FSC)
  • Paper: 170gsm Arena Extra white Smooth (FSC), Fedrigoni
  • Printing / Printer: Digital / Offset (Zine), Pureprint, UK
  • Binding: Sewn Section
  • Size: A4 / A5 (zine)
  • Edition Size: 500 / 3000 (Zine)

What does sustainability mean to you?  

Only physically producing something when necessary, where other options are not as viable and ... having decided to make something, to make it in a way that practicably minimises impact (upstream and downstream). That involves the entire end to end process, from design to distribution.

This project inevitably involved travelling, wherever possible and for most of the field work, I ‘piggybacked’ the photography travel on the back of other travel - eg, photography in Cuba and Sweden coincided with academic conferences to minimise travel.

How did you think through your choices of paper, printing method, binding, packaging, number of books etc?

My first reference was the materials already on the SPP Resource List. This was used to shortlist potential printers and materials. From the outset the intent was to minimise waste in the production process, as this has a much bigger impact than small margins between different paper types. This intention was conveyed to the designer (Struktur Design Ltd) and we worked collaboratively to resolve this.

Sadly I confess to having a spreadsheet with factors, options, suppliers included so I could do an assessment. The criteria for assessment covered eco-credentials and track record of printer eg. ISO14001 and FSC certified were seen as ‘entry tickets’. Optional criteria were B-Corp, EMAS and Carbon Offset/Carbon Neutral, these were assessed versus cost and benefit. Evidence of purchasing ethos, emissions, zero to landfill and waste minimisation were also considered. I emailed and called several printers to confirm the details.  

To minimise waste the book size was chosen to fit a standard format, in my case, A4 (horizontal), that minimises paper wastage and simplifies later packaging and shipping. I needed a minimum of 260-300 books for the campaign distribution to councils, so decided to limit the production run to 500 max. That would allow ‘free’' distribution to councils and enough sales copies to make the project viable. In terms of design we also fixed the number of pages to work well with binding and paper use, so max 128 pages.  I also wanted to reduce waste in the cover. I initially thought of a soft back but felt this would not have the desired impact with councils, so decided on a flexicover type design, with a much thinner cover, but a standard hardback design and binding. Whilst we wanted a ‘quality’ cloth feel we used Wibalin (uncoated paper). The screen printing was done at a specialist close to PurePrint. 

The enquiry went to 6 printers, all UK based, and most already on the SPP Resources page. I had to eliminate some as they were not financially viable (2-3x the cost of others). I questioned several of the shortlisted printers about how they intended to produce the book - printing processes, inks, binding etc, and any subcontractors used - to help assess their ‘eco credential’ claims versus what they actually did. We did not initially specify a paper but asked for recommendations based upon a requirement that any paper must be - FSC certified, acid free, heavy metal free and elemental chlorine free. 

For the distribution, all council copies were sent via Post Office 2nd class in Priory ColomPac boxes designed for A4 books -  no bubble wrap, no plastic!!  I hand carried them all to my local Post Office.

The complementary ‘act now’ zine which is aimed at the wider public had a much larger run of 3000 copies, so offset was the only option, but I used the same selection process to choose between Mixam, Newspaper Club and YouLovePrint (actually part of PurePrint and produced on Heidelberg presses and facility at PurePrint, where the book was printed). The zine is being distributed via the Community Repair Network, Restart Project, Repair Cafes and sustainability-related events (such as Sian Berry’s ‘Dead Spaces’ event in London and FixFest in Cardiff) to minimise distribution footprint. 

What challenges did you face, what questions were you asking, would you do anything differently next time?

The main question was on digital versus offset. In the end for the book, digital was selected; in terms of image quality it stands up. In terms of waste, it is far smaller than offset for the print run size. The argument that the wasted paper in lith offset set up is recycled, is not a good one for small runs, if you think that all that paper was bought, transported, stored, used, inks consumed, wasted, transported again and then required more energy and water to turn it into an inferior (shorter fibre) recycled paper, it's hard to justify. Recycling is also very low down in the hierarchy of sustainable actions. 

The second challenge was on how thin to go on the cover, the challenge was to balance weight (and materials consumed) versus physical ‘impact’.  I wanted the book to look significant, so in the end we went for a flexible hardcover that reduced the weight as the greyboard was thinner (and lighter) but maintained a ‘hardback feel’.

The third challenge was the main section paper. The initial instinct was to go for recycled paper. But when you consider the need to buy a smaller quantity, the potential additional transport impact, wastage etc, then there is no significant benefit versus a higher volume well sourced FSC paper. So, we ended up going for Fedrigoni Arena Extra smooth, as Pureprint held this on stock and we didn’t require ’special runs or transportation’.

Do you have any sustainability tips or inspirations (i.e. books, films, websites, podcasts) to share with others?

Don’t rely on company websites alone. Do your homework to have confidence in the information you are making decisions on. Contact suppliers either via email or phoning and ensure you have the relevant information. If in doubt, ask others - there is a growing number of people working with sustainability in mind.  And, finally, share what you learn!

Mark Phillips (UK) - 12.2023

In Search of InBetween Spaces 
Kshitija Mruthyunjaya
(Self-published: 2023)

This is a work in progress booklet of this ongoing research project to find in-between spaces that open alternative paths for thinking through white which does not lead to a nostalgia for cleanliness and purity but moves towards a future where white (that is conventionally associated with beginning of a new life, clean and pristine) engages with its red iron oxide by-product (that is associated with waste, an end, something to be discarded). The research (through book making methods) questioned what does this space look like where white and its red iron oxide ‘waste’ can co-exist? In what ways can we show the possibilities of an ambiguous space where two conventionally opposing entities can co-exist?

Images © Kshitija Mruthyunjaya

Materials and Processes

  • Paper: standard office printer paper (unused stock) 
  • Cover: Recycled white linen paper - 300 gsm 
  • Binding: Stab binding, Srinivas, Bangalore
  • Printing/ Printers: Screen printed / Chitra Printers, Malleshwaram, Bangalore
  • Book Size: A5
  • Edition Size: Open edition, print on demand

What does sustainability mean to you? 

Sustainability for me is thinking and acting contextually that creates lasting local systems. 

How did you think through your choices of paper, printing method, binding, packaging, number of books etc?

White is conventionally associated with cleanliness and purity. However, its complex nature is less understood. Nowadays, synthetic white pigment like Titanium Dioxide (also known as TiO2) is widespread. Its rising demand in construction, automotives, textile, cosmetic and other industries as a dispersing agent, flocculent and most importantly as a whitening agent is spurring the demand worldwide. Countries like India produce mammoth amounts of TiO2 to meet its annual demand and most of this is imported from China. India is trying to move towards self-sufficiency by developing production hubs around areas that are rich in ilmenite, one of the most widespread TiO2-bearing ore. But the extractive production methods particularly the build up of iron oxide, a toxic by-product is causing grave problems. With no safe process to dispose of the iron oxide waste, it has impacted the local landscape: wiping out villages, agriculture, animal husbandry, aquatic life, and has affected the health of locals who live and work in the shadow of the TiO2 industry. 

Inspired by this issue the project seeks to reduce the destructive impact by finding a material purpose for the red iron oxide by-product. The goal is not to build a campaign to stop the industry, nor is it to prevent consumers from using products that contain TiO2. Rather it is about creating new narratives that understand the web of mutuality within production and consumption of the white pigment, particularly between white and its red by-product. 

Initial experimentation involved making a solvent based ink using the red iron oxide by-product. Collaborating with local artists and makers was a key part of this project. Anand Inks, a company based in Peenya, Bangalore, India have been manufacturing screen printing solvent based inks for over 30 years. They helped in advising and making ink with the iron oxide sludge sample, obtained from a research centre who collaborates with the R&D department of the TiO2 factory in Kerala. 

Anand Ink's employees Sharada and Bhagya first mixed the pigment with a binder (co-polymer resin) which “plays a crucial role and determines the smoothness, hardness, weather resistance, moisture resistance, and other properties of the ink.” A solvent was then added to dissolve the resin and adjust viscosity. To improve the dispersion quality the mixture passed through a triple roll mill many times before the ink was ready. 

Once the ink was ready, the next step was to use iron oxide ink on paper. The idea was to test the ink on different paper types that have varied Titanium Dioxide percentages. This experiment will be taken up in the future phases of this project. For now, a standard printer paper with increased opacity was used to print the text part of this document using ink that was made from the red iron oxide by-product. The images were digitally printed prior to screen printing. The screen printing process was done in collaboration with Nityananda, owner of Chitra Printers, a local printer in Malleshwaram, Bangalore.

Binding was done by a local binder named Srinivas. Non adhesive stab binding was done using local white cotton thread. The booket has a print on demand format. For now only five copies have been printed. A bundle of thick white paper that was previously purchased for office purposes was left unused for a long time. This was used for this phase of the project. 

What challenges did you face, what questions were you asking, would you do anything differently next time?

The main challenge was to find experts in making ink that employ printing techniques that are environmentally friendly. Since they are not yet commercially viable here, most ink makers and screen printers I contacted didn’t practise sustainable ink formulation techniques and environmentally friendly methods of screen printing. For instance this time PVC binder was used for ink making. 

In the next phase of the project I would like to look into eliminating thickeners and maybe use just the pigment and oil. I would also look into environmentally friendly ways of screen printing where products such as ink degrader, haze remover, degreaser etc are non-toxic, biodegradable, and soy-based.

Regarding paper I will be looking at different percentages of Titanium dioxide that will have an impact on the opacity and quality of paper and how it affects the printing process. It was challenging to gather the TiO2 percentage information at this stage as the manufacturers are secretive about revealing details. Once these details are known I will be using left over stock paper for each category for further experimentation. 

Since I am new to the printing field, I am learning as I go, gaining advice from experts and experimenting stage by stage. 

Do you have any sustainability tips or inspirations (i.e. books, films, websites, podcasts) to share with others?

One of the landmark books of the 20th century is Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring. The publication that came out in 1962 was instrumental in the ban of DDT and spurred revolutionary changes to law enforcement around air, water and land. Her concern for the future of the planet reverberated throughout the world, making invisible forces such as indiscriminate application of chemicals, pesticides etc and its impacts on the environment visible. 

Kshitija Mruthyunjaya (India) - 11.2023

We Are Making a New World 
Aindreas Scholz
(Self-Published: 2022)

As an island nation, water has shaped and reshaped much of Ireland’s prosperity. However, water also threatens. According to several scientific papers, Ireland’s coastline will experience dramatic sea level rises by 2050. Unmitigated, one article predicts that ‘[s]ea level is projected to continue to rise … All major cities in Ireland are in coastal locations subject to tides, any significant rise in sea levels will have major economic, social, and environmental impacts. Rising sea levels around Ireland would result in increased coastal erosion, flooding and damage to property and infrastructure.’

This emerging climate crisis is strongly echoed in my work because my methodology relies on the use of seawater and soil to evoke place-specific coastal and environmental vulnerability and highlights the urgent need to develop alternatives to reduce our global carbon footprint. Presented in the form of a concertina book, the folded pages echo ocean waves, which are instrumental particularly when folding and unfolding the photobook resembling the movement of waves.

We Are Making a New World incorporates ‘seawater’, ‘silt’ and ‘soil’ as part of my sustainable photographic printing practice, simultaneously evoking the gradual threat that coastal erosions pose, particularly, for coastal communities.

Images © Aindreas Scholz

Materials and Processes

  • Paper: Seawhite of Brighton, 140gsm high-quality cartridge paper
  • Cover: n/a
  • Printing: Unique cyanotype
  • Binding: Unbound
  • Book Size: 756 x 29 cm (concertina)
  • Edition Size: 10*

*Currently only 1 is made

What does sustainability mean to you?

Using both 19th-century and modern photographic techniques, I aim to innovate in terms of sustainable photographic printing practices and processes considering the emerging climate crisis, and to push technical, creative as well as conceptual boundaries. I create images in response to specific sites and my practice concerns the connections between humans, non-humans, nature, and the wider environment.

I work in collaboration with the elements at each site, whether sea water, rain, or plant specimens. Sunlight, silt and soil help me create an inner world that connects to my viewers. I like my work to stimulate conversations which I engage with, and that enable me to develop as an individual.

Sustainability to me means looking at how sustainable a particular process is and whether this can be further reduced to save on natural resources and/or waste. For example, I have consciously chosen the cyanotype process (a 19th-century salt-based process) because it is perhaps one of the least polluting photographic processes since it does not use silver which has to be extracted. In order to make my cyanotype solution, I only use rainwater and saltwater that I collect and store. Next, I only use recycled paper and available sunlight to avoid using UV lamps. Last but not least, I never wash and rinse my cyanotypes, meaning that no wastewater is returned back to the environment. I hope that my choices are contributing to a more sustainable practice.

How did you think through your choices of paper, printing method, binding, packaging, and number of books?

My choice of paper largely depends on papers that are suitable for cyanotype processes. In general, heavyweight papers work better for me as they are less likely to get damaged in the process. My printing method depends on the location since all my concertina books are made in situ, meaning either on the beach or near the shoreline. My printing method is a direct collaboration with the natural elements including sunlight, wind, temperature, and humidity. My unique outcomes require no further binding and come with a bookcase. Depending on the weather, I can create up to three concertina books at the same time.

What challenges did you face, what questions were you asking, and would you do anything differently next time?

I have faced a number of challenges ranging from finding the right papers and formats to working out under which types of weather to successfully conduct my work. I have a habit of critically reflecting on my work during and after each piece to identify gaps and come up with problem-solving techniques. I often ask myself how to make my sustainable practice even more sustainable. I recently discussed this with a curator and we both agreed that I could recycle my own paper, turning them into book pages. In addition, paper makers often incorporate organic flower waste such as flower petals into the paper making process. Ideally, I would like to experiment and include seaweed and/or marine plastic debris to further enhance the meaning behind my work. In future, I would like to collaborate with other professionals ranging from book binders, book designers, botanists, marine biologists, curators, and publishers to deepen my own skill set and understanding.

Do you have any sustainability tips or inspirations (i.e. books, films, websites, podcasts) to share with others?

Art in the Anthropocene: Encounters Among Aesthetics, Politics, Environments and Epistemologies, edited by Heather Davis and Etienne Turpin

Films by Edward Burtynsky:

Alternative Photogaphy:

Aindreas Scholz (UK) 11.2023

Freddy and Ceydie
Cynthia Johnston
( Self-Published 2022)

On April 20th, 2008, a man in Croatia died. As part of his post-mortem legacy, he saved the lives of two individuals in Belgium—the photographer’s daughter and Freddy. Ten years after their liver transplants, through this strange fate of a shared organ, they met one another for the first time—Ceydie aged 13 and Freddy aged 75—Freddy agreeably; Ceydie with pubescent protest. Aside from an image of this brief meeting, this project is a visual portrait that separately documents the lives of Ceydie (now living in Canada) and Freddy, with the intent of raising awareness around the impact of deceased organ donation. 

Images © Cynthia Johnston

Materials and Processes

  • Paper: 40lb. Rolland Opaque Text Supplied by Printer from stock
  • Cover: 80lb. Rolland Opaque Text Supplied by Printer from stock
  • Printing: offset lithograph printing using recycled black ink by Flash Reproductions (Toronto, Canada)
  • Book Size: 15” x 10”, 40 pages or ten sheets
  • Edition Size: 200 copies

What does sustainability mean to you? 

As a visual artist who is also a mother, I am concerned about the landscape of the future, and the possible irony of what I create in my photographic practice could be part of a greater cycle of micro-destructions that contributes to the ailing earth. I am constantly asking myself, “how can I effectively re-use already existing materials and reduce my chemical footprint in my photography in both my workflow and the final presentation of my projects?”  

How did you think through your choices of paper, printing method, binding, packaging, number of books etc?

As I wanted to conceptually illustrate the idea of recycling within the final presentation of the project along with being environmentally conscious, I was fortunate to find someone who was willing to print my book/catalogue/exhibition using recycled black ink on old stock paper (made from 30% sustainable recycled paper). 

The book is structured as ten loose sheets (10” x30”) that can be pulled apart and adhered to a wall using putty, tape, tacks and magnets OR, it can be simply viewed as a book (10” x15”). I felt this size was just within the range of not being too large to hold as a book and similarly, not too small on the wall when exhibiting.

The functionality and versatility of the design allows for an easy exhibition set-up in all kinds of spaces, not to mention, it is very mobile for travel versus costly printed and framed images—which also require insurance. (Depending on the space, I do have a couple of re-used frames for vertical images that could not be part of the book). When people buy the book, its dual function could encourage others to further share the work in an informal way—as a pop-up salon in their home (taking a page from Dayanita Singh's personal museums project), or simply have it lying on their coffee table. Either way, this could hopefully be another avenue to create an extended space for dialogue around organ donation, signing donor cards and conversation about their current governmental deceased donor organ policies—eg. opt-in versus opt-out. Following one of my exhibitions, the pages of my project were given to a secondary school art class who will create something else out of the book/catalogue/exhibition in the future.

By contacting Jason Logan of “The Toronto Ink Company” via Instagram, I was led to David Gallant of “Flash Reproductions”, a printing company in Toronto. Jason thought David would be willing to experiment using recycled ink. As my project was originally only in black and white, he was willing to try using recycled black ink. I would say it took about two or three tries before we found a workable depth of black. In the end, David figured they added about 20% fresh ink to the recycled batch. I asked David if he would consider using recycled ink of other colours in the future and he was open to it. However, they recently have a new ink supplier and as it is a new relationship, he was not sure if they would be willing to mix the old ink with the new ink. 

David: I believe they [The Toronto Ink Company] took some of the waste ink that we had collected, all different inks mixed together, and re-ground it with some stabilizers. This created recycled black ink we could use in the press but it wasn’t a true black because it was many different inks mixed together. So we added a little fresh blue ink into it to balance the colour.

I had 200 books printed. This was based on a rough calculation of the number of exhibitions I was hoping to have combined with the number of books I could sell to cover my printing costs. (Also, with regards to presenting the book as an exhibition, I knew I could save financially by using and reusing the pages as an exhibition versus traditionally printing and framing all the diptychs which would be even more costly as they were not a standard size).  

What challenges did you face, what questions were you asking, would you do anything differently next time?

I originally would have preferred 100% recycled paper. However, there was a paper backlog last winter (2022) and I had a deadline (an exhibition), plus the cost for newly recycled paper was rather high. When the printer proposed an old paper stock he already had, I agreed right away. Why not use something that already exists then requiring more to be made? 

As the book leans more toward the utilitarian, I would consider hiring a designer for assistance in the overall presentation from beginning to end. I did have help with the cover from Criterium Design. However, this was at the tail end of the project, so they were really limited in both time and what choices they had regarding the double function of the book.

I wrestled with how to incorporate the extended written parts without taking away from the visual (exhibition) aspect of the work nor did I want to create any more pages than necessary. Therefore, I decided upon QR codes—if the viewer wanted to know more, they could pursue it or not. 

Do you have any sustainability tips or inspirations (i.e. books, films, websites, podcasts) to share with others?

I am always inspired and moved by stories of people coming together to solve problems. In the case of these two links below, they are not necessarily directly related to sustainability with regards to book making but nonetheless point to different stories dealing with environmental issues.

(The Sunday Read: ‘What does sustainable living look like? Maybe like Uruguay’)

(fairly recent interview with Lois Gibbs) (There is also the 1982 film “Lois Gibbs and the Love Canal—which I have not seen)

The EY Sustainability Matters podcast (How can a circular economy help shift the Plastics Industry agenda?):

Finding the Mother Tree” by Suzanne Simard

Phytoprints—Luis Undritz designs printer that creates “living” prints from algae"

Cynthia Johnston (Canada) 11.2023

Eternal U
Hubert Humka

Eternal U is a story about the so-called good death and eternity. Through photographs of forests being natural cemeteries where the dead are buried in biodegradable urns or coffins, marked only with a previously selected tree, Humka shows a certain way of thinking about us as a code, an immortal chain of some larger universe. During life, we all draw from it, to later give it a part of ourselves. 

Eternal U is the second, after Death Landscapes (2018), joint publishing project of Hubert Humka and BLOW UP PRESS. The book was created in the spirit of sustainable development, respect for the world and the surrounding nature, on ecological recycled papers. Its main axis are photographs of the forest, accompanied by negative modifications and embossed text about leaving. The graphic techniques used symbolise the perception of the world from the other side and the trace we leave behind. 

All copies of the book are numbered. 


Materials and Processes

  • Paper: Ecoline Grey 140g and Fedrigoni Materica Verdigris 120g
  • Cover: soft, Ecoline Grey 290g
  • Binding: Swiss
  • Printing: Argraf, Warsaw, Poland (printing) and Marceli Printery, Warsaw, Poland (embossing)
  • Book size: 235x320 mm
  • Edition size: 550 copies

What does sustainability mean to you?

In our case, as we always collaborate with a professional printer on our books, sustainability may only refer to materials, not technology - at least until our printer will introduce such printing solutions. The majority of our books are printed on wood-free papers, produced with natural materials instead of cellulose and so on, or on recycled papers, as recently. But everything depends on the project we are going to print. Knowing the story, we can choose materials which correspond with it in the best possible way, making the book a complete embodiment of the project.

How did you think through your choices of paper, printing method, binding, packaging, number of books etc?

Working on Hubert Humka’s Eternal U we wanted readers to experience both the process of passing and a forest. That’s why we decided to use recycled papers as they were the best connection with the project, illustrating the process of transformation, second life, and giving readers a feeling of some magic happening. And as the project is about passing taking place in the forest, we intuitively decided to use gray and green papers. Green paper was used for the main body of the text which was embossed on one side, so it could blend in to the paper, becoming its integral part (as a decomposed body becomes part of the forest). It also perfectly played with images printed on the second side, especially with the images of the tree bark, giving the impression of touching a real tree.

As all of our books are printed in CMYK [Offset], we had no special alternative in this matter. What we could choose was the binding. We chose Swiss binding for its characteristic raw, exposed spine (a link to the world of nature) also allowing the reader to open the book completely flat. As the book format is quite big, we had to use some glue, but it was produced from the remains of animals used for meat. And finally, a soft-cover gives the book additional lightness which is important for transportation. 

We do not use any protective foil to pack the book as it would be against the project.

What challenges did you face, what questions were you asking, would you do anything differently next time?

The most challenging part of the book was to print colour images on gray paper. All of them had to be properly adjusted to look good on a non-white background. Another challenge was to emboss the text to make it readable without the use of any colour. Additionally, from the technical point of view, we had to ‘convince’ the printing machine to recognise gray paper. It didn’t read it at all. So all measurements were taken on regular white paper and then transferred to the settings of our project in the machine memory.

Would we do anything differently next time? No, rather not. People going through the book often say it is a perfect embodiment of the story - so, mission accomplished.

One key part of our business is attending photo and artbook fairs and photo festivals to meet our audience and to sell our books. Most of these events we travel to by car with our books, it often takes us 3 days to go from Warsaw where BLOW UP PRESS is registered, one way, and then another 3 days to go back. So, 6 days of travel for often an event that only lasts the weekend. With the most important events taking place in France (as in Poland there is almost nothing happening related to the books we do), we decided to change our location to save some time and also to limit our carbon footprint. Now, we are based in Vienna, which is one day closer to France, which is the biggest market for our publications. Knowing us, by continuing this approach, we will move to France one day.

Do you have any sustainability tips or inspirations (i.e. books, films, websites, podcasts) to share with others?

Actually, we would be thankful for any suggestions here. :)

Grzegorz Kosmala and Aneta Kowalczyk, Blow Up Bress (POLAND) 11.2023

Good Morning 
Collective / Anonymous 
(Editions JOJO, 2023)

India’s smart technology revolution enabled the family WhatsApp group, a medium for daily digital connection across generations. It birthed a unique cultural phenomenon – the good morning forward, a feel-good visual image meant to affirm, uplift and convey positivity. 

‘Good Morning’ offers the now ubiquitous forward as a site of protest during a time of political distress and upheaval, as a space for citizens and artists to reclaim their voice. The book looks at a selection of images as they move from a restored archive of an Instagram account, compressed and decomposing in digital storage, to its recovery in printed form. 

Images © Edition JoJo

Materials and Processes 

  • Paper: FSC mix by SAPPI , based in North America
  • Cover: locally sourced Kappa Board, screen printed 
  • Binding: Spiral binding using recycled plastic coil from MyBinding Solutions, USA
  • Printing/ Printers: Pragati Press , FSC certified printers, Hyderabad, India
  • Book Size: 5 x 8” / 13x20cm
  • Edition Size: 500

What does sustainability mean to you? 

Sustainability in bookmaking encompasses materials used and production processes, and I would propose that it also extends to the channels of circulation and the relationships with the people involved in all parts of the process. These channels of circulation include both the production & distribution processes - it’s about how we transport books (a person to person (P2P) approach instead of shipping where possible), building relationships with smaller print shops and individual binders, paper suppliers or even papermakers to create an ecosystem that is both locally sustainable and also financially sustainable in terms of the cost of production.

Editions JOJO is a publishing imprint, bookshop, library, and platform for visual culture based in Mumbai, India. The bookshop and library are housed in a former garage that was built in the art deco style which was new to India at the time. This building had been used by my grandfather, and in repurposing the space it was important to make use of the characterful doors, windows and details, which had been removed from other parts of the building, as part of the family legacy. There were a lot of materials, especially timber, left-over in the space that we reused where possible in the creation of the library, both to save on the cost of materials and so as not to waste what was already there. It is nice to think about this reuse of materials as giving them another life, both bringing their history with them and moving forwards into the future.

I wasn’t actively thinking about sustainability for my previous publications if I am honest, but in retrospect, some of the choices that I made, partly also because of the monetary constraint I was working with, led me to think about sustainability as community building and making the books hand-made where possible. For example, In Today’s News was produced in a kind of DIY way, working with small-scale local printers and binders. I hand-stitched the entire edition myself as well. Cake cutting was produced using FSC paper on a home laser printer by a la maison in Paris and stitched on a sewing machine by a friend of the printer. This book was made during a residency in Paris and part of this was connecting with local networks to make the book.

How did you think through your choices of paper, printing method, binding, packaging, number of books etc? 

I’m making an effort to use FSC approved and recycled materials where possible and while they are important, locally sourced may be more sustainable than importing recycled materials unless we find a way to import sustainably. The paper that was used for the inside of this book was one that the printer had in stock and that matched the look and feel I needed, was affordable and FSC certified. As far as I know, most of our offset papers are imported and the paper we make here in India is for export. I haven’t heard of locally made recycled offset paper that’s easily available but this is an ongoing search in tandem with testing alternatives to offset printing like RISO and dry offset. The outer cover of the book is a screen printed board that’s locally sourced.

In the case of Good Morning, I was sure I wanted recycled binding coils in a specific colour as part of the design, which were impossible to find in India. They were transported in suitcases with people who were already making a trip over from the USA but again, the tax man will want a cut so I don’t know how feasible this is for larger print-runs. P2P (person to person) networks are something that I am also using for transporting finished books. My network is made up of other book makers, publishers, family and friends who are regularly travelling and are willing to carry books from one location to another. These networks ultimately help to keep the books at an accessible price.

For printing, we’re working with Pragati Offset, an FSC certified printer. The number of books is determined by the cost of production / design and of course, what I can afford as a publisher and what I think I can sell. For size, at the moment the concept and design define the size and I try to adjust it slightly to minimise waste. I worked with the printer for this adjustment in the case of Good Morning. I believe we managed to use the whole printing plate if we include crops and bleeds.

What challenges did you face, what questions were you asking, would you do anything differently next time? 

One of the challenges is definitely adapting design to be more sustainable - of finding local and sustainable materials whilst still staying true to the vision of the work. It’s a fine balance to try and be sustainable yet not compromise on the outcome. I think it will be an ongoing negotiation which can’t be without innovation in paper-making locally and this will come through research time spent with paper-makers & developing the need for sustainable production in the community [both the photobook community and wider local community] via conversations like this one.

Packaging is another area where I am actively making changes. I am starting to use protective paper packaging instead of using plastic bubble wrap. But before I make the transition I am using up the bubble wrap left-over from incoming deliveries, both when sending out books and packing them for exhibitions. 

Do you have any sustainability tips or inspirations (i.e. books, films, websites, podcasts) to share with others? 

There is a formal person to person network called Light Logistics that offers a free surplus couriering network to ease distribution and avoid the high costs of shipping. It’s part of Display Distribute, a now and again exhibition space, distribution service, thematic inquiry, and sometimes shop founded in Kowloon, Hong Kong. I have carried some parcels for Elaine, the founder.

I know that DoubleDummy in Arles are thinking through some of these sustainability issues. 

Kaamna Patel, Editions JOJO (INDIA) 09.2023

Traces Within
Eva Voutsaki
(Self Published, 2020)

Traces Within is a project about memories, myths, dreams and fantasies. A tri-fold hand-bound book of three booklets stitched on a concertina cover which allows for the book to be opened out into one long strip and be viewed in 2,197 possible configurations. The format for Traces Within was based on the idea of drifting through memories, the intention was to create a book with no obvious beginning or end, allowing the viewer to drift through the photos. Printed on vegetable inks using stock paper.

Designer: Emily Macaulay (Stanley James Press)
Text: Vanessa Winship

Book images above © Stanley James Press

Materials and Processes

  • Paper: FSC uncoated printspeed offset paper 140 gsm (Pureprint's stock paper)
  • Cover: FSC uncoated printspeed offset paper 300gsm (Pureprint's stock paper)
  • Binding: pamphlet binding on a trifold cover
  • Printing/ Printers: Offset printed by Pureprint, Uckfield (UK)
  • Book Size: 15 x 21 cm (closed), 88 x 21 cm (open)
  • Edition Size: 800

What does sustainability mean to you?

As someone who has grown up in a small Cretan village as a keen gardener growing my own herbs, vegetables and fruits, I understand the journey of a seed from a wish to something tangible/edible.  My core principles are to be as self efficient and holistic as possible, grow as much of my own food, share resources and extra food, create zero waste and be independent. That's why I decided to self publish. From seed to fruit. From photographs, to dummies to book. 

How did you think through your choices of paper, printing method, binding, packaging, number of books etc?

All materials used, from the paper, to packaging, book cloth tape, linen binding thread and vegan stickers are biodegradable, compostable and recyclable. The printing was offset Lithoprint using vegetable based inks because my idea was that in the worst case scenario, my books could be composted in my garden.

I knew I wanted to print locally and I was aware of Pureprints sustainability credentials. The fact that I could reach the printers within a 30 minute bus journey meant I could support a local business and keep my CO2 emissions low by not printing abroad. Emily suggested using their stock paper as a way to keep the cost down and also to be more eco-friendly by not creating extra waste. The print run was 800 as a result of being given all printed materials and I have used some of the test prints that would have been recycled at the printers' facilities, as a wrapping paper for the first 300 books I sold. As an extra touch. In terms of the book size, I wanted it to be roughly A5 as a typical diary size and for practical reasons, so that it would fit in a C5 postal box and be posted as a large letter instead of a small package. 

The books are all hand bound by me to keep the production cost lower and as a way to engage more with the whole process of self publishing. Each book I bind has the date I bound it stamped on the back cover. Binding all the books is a form of meditation. Being in the moment. 

What challenges did you face, what questions were you asking, would you do anything differently next time?

I was lucky to have Emily Macaulay as my graphic designer, who is a very knowledgeable and eco-friendly designer. Her creative and practical approach is similar to mine. I don't think I faced any challenges as I already knew the Printers. Perhaps one thing I will do differently next time is to use recycled paper if that's considered more sustainable. 

One of the main challenges though (especially post Brexit) is the book distribution to European countries, especially to Spain, Portugal and Greece. I had books returned to me after months of being stuck at Customs (mostly those posted to Greece and Portugal). They would be transported to Greece and then instead of being delivered there, or notifying the person who ordered the book, they would be sent back to me after 4-6 months. In the end I had to charge for tracked postage to ensure the books were delivered, which is more expensive.

Do you have any sustainability tips or inspirations (i.e. books, films, websites, podcasts) to share with others?

I would check the environmental statement/commitment on the printers' website and also use the SPP website as a reference. I recommend finding a graphic designer who is environmentally friendly and that shares your core beliefs/approach/philosophy. Overall, as a Photobook community, we need to be more open and share information so that the next projects follow the shared sustainability principles.

Eva Voutsaki (UK) - 07.2023

La playa de los juguetes perdidos 
Alfredo Blasquez 
(Inframundo: 2021)

For centuries, toys were crafted with natural materials such as wood, seeds, clay, bones or stones. The incorporation of plastic, a synthetic material that has the capacity to be molded into infinite shapes, transformed their production in such a way that it is currently used in more than 90% of toys produced at an industrial level. If we consider the durability of plastic, all these toys, after a short period of useful life, continue to exist and end up like most of our waste in landfills, incinerated or abandoned in the environment. 

Between 2013 and 2019, I carried out several projects recovering and recycling marine litter in numerous Mexican beaches, facing the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Amid tons of rubbish and colorful pieces of plastic, the toys caught my attention because they reminded me of archaeological artifacts. Thus, I began to collect and photograph each new discovery. When I shared them with my son Miguel, who was three years old at the time, he conveyed his enormous emotion to me, and therefore inspired the idea of saving as many as possible in order to instill them with a new life through this project. 

Images © Alfredo Blasquez

Materials and Processes

  • Interior Papers: Kraft paper made from 100% recycled raw material.125 g. Papelera Rino; Red cardboard paper made with recycled and virgin material.150 g. Grupo Lozano Hnos. 
  • Cover: Astrobright Blast off Blue, FSC Certified. Neenah, 90g. Papelería Lumen; Cardboard recycled 100% FSC Certified.2.5 mm Grupo Lozano Hnos. 
  • Poster: Cappuccino Bond Paper, 100% Recycled. 75 g. Grupo Lozano Hnos. 
  • Box: Kraft cardboard made from 100% recycled raw material. PapelSA 
  • Binding: Copper Wireo ( 
  • Book size: 22.5 x 17 cm / 132 pages
  • Printing: Offset, digital and screen printing by Offset Santiago, Mexico
  • Edition: 1,000 (extended to 1,250 by including the material discarded or left over from the original print run) 

What does sustainability mean to you?

To me sustainability is the balance between the natural, social and economic components. Considering the origin and impact of the resources that are respectful to the environment and deliver positive outcomes for a community. 

How did you think through your choices of paper, printing method, binding, packaging, no. of books etc.?

The book was printed and bound with local suppliers; mixing offset, digital and screen printing, using national recycled papers. The interior of the book is printed on kraft paper which, in addition to being recycled and very accessible, has a texture and porosity that make the printed toys appear to be buried, like the way they were found at the beach. The main challenge of using this paper was that the printer did not want to use it on their offset machine. Another challenge was to assemble each book because it includes a cardboard box, a poster and a print, all made with different suppliers that I put together in batches of 250 copies at my studio. For the packaging I only use the sheets of paper discarded during offset printing, so I didn´t use any plastic at all. 

All papers provided by local suppliers in Mexico: 
Grupo Lozano Hermanos ( 
Lumen ( 
Papel SA de CV ( 

What challenges did you face, what questions were you asking, would you do anything differently next time?

The main challenges and opportunities were to use only local materials and suppliers, with the intention of maintaining low-cost production so that the book had an affordable price. Due to budget issues and the fact that I had to assemble the books in stages, the process was very long. I think a smaller print run would have been better, although I am excited that the book can reach the largest possible audience. In the end about 40% of the total print run will be donated to institutions and non-profit organizations.

Do you have any sustainability tips or inspirations to share with others?

A book that changed my way of seeing sustainability was “Worldchanging: A User's Guide for the 21st Century” by Alex Steffen, Published in 2006 by Abrams, because it offers practical solutions or alternatives to environmental concerns.

I also recommend the Ellen Macarthur Foundation ( for the resources and information it offers about how circular economy can tackle climate change and other global challenges.

Alfredo Blasquez (Mexico) - 07.2023

James Newton
(Highchair Editions: 2023)

Photographs 2014 - 2022
A series of windows in museums and galleries:
Amsterdam / Basel / Brussels / Como /
Copenhagen / Ghent / Lille / London / Naples /
Palermo / Paris / Vienna

Works in European museums and galleries are 
usually hung chronologically with labels which 
describe their contents, origins and relevant place 
in the lineage of art history.  In this way the works 
are removed from the present (and our immediate 
experience of them) and placed in the past as 
historical artefacts.

Images © Highchair Editions

Materials and Processes

  • Paper: Evercopy Plus 80gsm
  • Binding: 15 Loose sheets folded
  • Printing: Risograph printed at LCBA by the publisher
  • Book Size: A4
  • Edition Size: open edition

What does sustainability mean to you?

I am going to take the definition ‘the ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level’ i.e. the ability to keep going. Is Highchair Editions sustainable? When we started 12 years ago we decided that it would be a DIY self publishing project where we produced books and printed matter that achieved a high standard of presentation for the work and made books that we liked and would be happy to own ourselves. The main decision was to invest in an inkjet  printer and then to experiment and make the books ourselves, rather than invest in ‘publishing a book’.  This has always meant that we can move on to the next project quickly without having to worry about selling a stockpile of books from the previous one. The challenge has always been to keep going and ensure that it is something that we want to keep doing and putting our energy into, but some of the main issues would be:

Financial - There needs to be a certain level of income from sales to ensure that we are not just losing money.  We don’t make a profit and we don’t rely upon it for income; this is an important part of our approach, it means that we can keep the books affordable for people to buy at book fairs.

Engagement - We don’t need to sell books in order to continue, we are free to publish whatever we decide and we are free to fail. This is essential in terms of keeping us excited by what we are doing and retaining the love of making, we always try to move forwards.  If we are engaged then we can engage with others through the work.

Ethical - Is it worth the paper it is printed on? Before considering materials we have to decide whether it is worth any materials at all.  Sometimes we get a long way into the development of a book before deciding not to go ahead with it if something just doesn’t feel right.  We have to believe in it.  A lot of our experiments have led us down the route of recycled materials and many of our books have been made this way.  I have to say that the main reason for this is that they suit the work and the subjects that we are presenting.  We like the print quality, the feel, the humble nature of the papers and cards. Of course the fact that they are recycled has other ‘environmental benefits’ but it is not the main driving factor in our choices.  By producing in house in small quantities we can run what is essentially a print on demand model so that if a book is not popular and doesn’t sell then it does not need to get made in the first place.  This is not always the case, we have produced books in an edition of 100 all pre-printed but over time we have moved away from this.  We waste as little as possible, all our paper gets used eventually so that left overs from one project can be put to use in another book at a later date, all our mail out packaging is recycled from deliveries that we have previously received.  Much like our book designs there is a constant process of stripping back and taking away, this now includes not offering business cards at events and not having a website.  Our aim is not expansion and growth, our aim is sustainability.

How did you think through your choices of paper, printing method, binding, packaging, no. of books etc.?

For a long time this book was going to be produced on a laser printer. During lock down I started experimenting with a small office A4 laser printer as this is what I had to hand, this led to the book ‘Low Country’ which worked well and I loved the aesthetic and thought that it was perfect for these photographs as well. But it ended up going round in circles, paper choice became difficult and then it got stuck.  Having left it alone for a while I realised that I had become a bit obsessed about using the laser printer!  Previously I had made print tests on a risograph machine but decided that they weren’t as good as the laser, but coming back to them it seemed that this was not the case - they could be improved though.  Once this decision was made it freed up the book layout, design and paper choices, it also meant that I was no longer restricted to A4 size but could work with A3 sheets.

The idea behind the design is simplicity, I wanted to present the photographs as simply as I could and ‘say’ as little as possible. There is a sort of blankness to them which I wanted to carry though the whole book.  The layout is straightforward and consistent, the sheets are printed single sided and left as untrimmed A3, they are folded and unbound, there is no image on the cover and the graphic design is minimal.  It is almost an exercise in making the book object invisible.  The Evercopy Plus paper is perfect for this as it is recycled but not obviously so, it is off white but still retains a whiteness rather than a colour tint, it is 80gsm so allows a show through of images to the page reverse and it is cheap to buy. It is a good ‘non material’ in that it is basic, functional, undecorative and not precious.

The risograph printed achieves a similar effect, it degrades the photographs and devalues them in a way that I like. The print quality of the risograph is beautiful but it is also basic and humble.  The London Centre for Book Arts has a machine in one of their studios that you can hire and take in materials - this is fantastic to have the freedom to use the machine as though it were your own rather than having to pass the project onto a printer.  I have spent a few sessions just playing and testing as this leads to unexpected results and the best thing of all, mistakes!  I plan to produce more books on it.

Packaging for the book is recycled tissue paper - white.

The first print run was 30 copies but there is no stated edition number so I may print more in the future.

What challenges did you face, what questions were you asking, would you do anything differently next time?

I think that I have covered some of this in the previous answers.  The biggest challenge was to get over the initial belief that it should be printed on the laser and then to not abandon the project.

The book is called ‘Views’ and it is about the idea that we all have our own views and opinions that we carry with us and impose on the way we perceive things. This stops us from seeing things as they really are.  The book, therefore, had to be as plain as possible and not attempt to obviously express anything.  To quote John Cage, “I have nothing to say and I am saying it”.

Next time I use the risograph (for another project) I will try to be more playful with the print quality, some of the errors are beautiful so I hope to be able to keep them in and then to include things like overprinting the same or multiple different images, maybe using more than one type of paper stock.

Do you have any sustainability tips or inspirations to share with others?

I’m afraid that I don’t think I can add anything useful to this in terms of resources or references. 

An inspiration of mine in terms of approach has been the rock band Fugazi, their method was DIY, they remained outside of the record industry by forming their own label and initially taking care of packaging and distribution. They made pragmatic decisions in order to keep costs down so that records and concerts could be affordable, one example of this is that they decided not to sell merchandise on tour as this would require a full time merch sales person who needed food, accommodation, transport etc.  So no merchandise was the solution. This approach is low impact and sustainable by its nature.

My concern with phrases like ‘impact on the environment’ and ‘sustainability’ is that they become a way of justifying or offsetting behaviours that are inherently damaging or unsustainable. Green washing in order to carry on without making fundamental change, it is like starting at the end and trying to work backwards rather than starting at the beginning.

James Newton, Highchair Editions (UK)- 06.2023

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